Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790
Mahlon Loomis (1826-1886)
James Clerk Maxwell
"The Theory I propose may . . . be called a Theory of the
Electromagnetic Field because it has to do with the space in the
neighborhood of the electric or magnetic bodies, and it may be called a dynamical theory, because it assumes that in that space
there is matter in motion, by which the observed electromagnetic phenomena are produced."
JAMES CLERK MAXWELL FOUNDATION
Michael Faraday (1791-1867)
Carl Ferdinand Braun
of Carl Ferdinand Braun
After the outbreak of the
First World War, Braun was summoned to New York to attend as a witness
in a lawsuit regarding a patent claim. Owing to his absence from his
laboratory and due to illness he was unable to carry out further
scientific work. Braun thus spent the last years of his life
peacefully in the United States, where he died on April 20, 1918. FromNobel Lectures, Physics 1901-1921. Copyrightę 2000 The Nobel Foundation For help, info, credits or comments, see "About this
Last updated by Webmaster@www.nobel.se / July 14, 1998
"Forgotten" Pioneers of Wireless Part 5
Oliver Lodge (1851-1940)
Nikola Tesla (1856-1943)
Heinrich Rudolf Hertz (1857-1894)
Jagadish Chandra Bose (1858-1937)
Valdemar Poulsen (1869-1942)
John Stone Stone (1869-1943)
- I refer to an article by Tesla in The Century Magazine in its issue of June 1900, pages 175-211, and particularly to that section entitled "Wireless Telegraphy--The Secret of Tuning--Errors in Hertzian Investigations--A Receiver of Wonderful Sensitiveness."
Here as elsewhere, Tesla takes a fling at those who attribute the transfer of the energy of these high frequency currents to a distance as a process of radiation.
In this he was more than half right, and whatever error be made in this connection was a failure to recognize that electromagnetic waves guided by the earth's surface, and therefore accompanied by currents in that surface, are in a sense still radiation, and that the two explanations of the phenomena are supplemental of one another and a comprehensive explanation of the phenomenon includes both the conception of the gliding electromagnetic waves and the currents in the earth's surface.
I misunderstood Tesla. I think we all misunderstood Tesla. We thought he was a dreamer and visionary.
He did dream and his dreams came true, he did have visions but they were of a real future, not an imaginary one.
Tesla was the first man to lift his eyes high enough to see that the rarified stratum of atmosphere above our earth was destined to play an important role in the radio telegraphy of the future, a fact which had to obtrude itself on the attention of most of us before we saw it.
But Tesla also perceived what many of us did not in those days, namely, the currents which flowed way from the base of the antenna over the surface of the earth and in the earth itself.
began his career as a telephone engineer . . .
Lee de Forest (1873-1961)
Many other inventors tried to improve the Fleming diode, most without
success. The only one who succeeded was New York inventor Lee de
Forest. In 1907 he patented a bulb with the same contents as the
Fleming diode, except for an added electrode. This "grid"
was a bent wire between the plate and filament. de Forest discovered
that if he applied the signal from the wireless-telegraph antenna to
the grid instead of the filament, he could obtain a much more
sensitive detector of the signal. In fact, the grid was changing
("modulating") the current flowing from the filament to the
plate. This device, the Audion, was the first successful electronic
amplifier. It was the genesis of today's huge electronics
Guglielmo Marconi (1874-1937)
Ernst Fredrik Werner