**DESCRIPTION:**
This book is a strikingly new exploration of
the fundamentals of Maxwell's electromagnetic theory and of Newton's
theory of gravitation. Starting with an analysis of causality in the
phenomenon of electromagnetic induction, the author discovers a series of
heretofore unknown or overlooked electromagnetic interdependencies and
equations.
One of the most notable new results is the discovery that
Maxwell's equations do not depict cause and effect relations between
electromagnetic phenomena: causal dependencies in electromagnetic
phenomena are found to be described by solutions of Maxwell's equations in
the form of retarded electric and magnetic field integrals. A consequence
of this discovery is that, contrary to the generally accepted view,
time-variable electric and magnetic fields cannot cause each other and
that both fields are simultaneously created by their true causative
sources -- time-dependent electric charges and currents. Another similarly
important discovery is that Lenz's law of electromagnetic induction is a
manifestation of the previously ignored electric force produced by the
time-dependent electric currents. These discoveries lead to important new
methods of calculations of various electromagnetic effects in time-
depended electromagnetic systems. The new methods are demonstrated by a
variety of illustrative examples.
Continuing his analysis of causal
electromagnetic relations, the author finds that these relations are
closely associated with the law of momentum conservation, and that with
the help of the law of momentum conservation one can analyze causal
relations not only in electromagnetic but also in gravitational systems.
This leads to the discovery that in the time-dependent gravitational
systems the momentum cannot be conserved without a second gravitational
force field, which the author calls the "cogravitational, or
Heaviside's, field." This second field, first predicted by Heaviside,
relates to the gravitational field proper just as the magnetic field
relates to the electric field. The author then generalizes Newton's
gravitational theory to time-dependent systems and derives causal
gravitational equations in the form of two retarded integrals similar to
the retarded integrals for the electric and magnetic fields introduced
previously.
One of the most important consequences of the causal
gravitational equations is that a gravitational interaction between two
bodies involves not one force (as in Newton's theory) but as many as five
different forces corresponding to the five terms in the two retarded
gravitational and cogravitational field integrals. These forces depend not
only on the masses and separation of the interacting bodies, but also on
their velocity and acceleration and even on the rate of change of their
masses. A series of illustrative examples on the calculation of these new
forces is provided and a graphical representation of these forces is
given. The book concludes with a discussion of the possibility of
antigravitation as a consequence of the negative equivalent mass of the
gravitational field energy.
The book is written in the style and format of
a textbook. The clear presentation, the detailed derivations of all the
basic formulas and equations, and the many illustrative examples make this
book well suitable not only for independent studies but also as a
supplementary textbook in courses on electromagnetic theory and
gravitation. The second edition of the book refines and improves the first
edition, especially in the presentation and development of Newton's
gravitational theory generalized to time-dependent gravitational systems.
The book has been augmented by several new Appendixes. Particularly
notable are Appendixes 5, 6, and 8. Appendixes 5 and 6 present novel
"dynamic" electric and gravitational field maps of rapidly
moving charges and masses. Appendix 8 contains the little-known but
extremely important Heaviside's 1893 article on the generalization of
Newton's gravitational theory. |