Pulsed Cold Plasmas

"Electromechanical Transduction of Plasma Pulses"
"Energy Conversion System"
"Direct Current Energized Pulse Generator Utilizing Autogenous Cyclical Pulsed Abnormal Glow Discharges"

Spontaneous emission properties of certain metals in vacuum and involves an anomalous cathode reaction force.

Aspden's Law of Electrodynamics

Direct electromechanical transformation of the energy accumulated within a plasma tube reactor.

Cold-cathode vacuum discharge plasma reactors to set up self-exciting oscillations, in the form of pulsed abnormal glow discharges triggered by auto-electronic emissions, in order to produce power.

Driven from a direct current source of impedance sufficient to prevent establishment of a sustained vacuum arc discharge. 

In combination with a special circuit, electrical power, in excess of the input power needed for operation, can be extracted. 

An over-unity system, net energy output exceeds net energy input. 

A direct current power transducer for driving alternating current devices utilizes a discharge tube connected across a current source, the construction of the tube and characteristics of the source being such as to maintain endogenous pulsed abnormal gas discharge within the tube. The tube is capacitively coupled to an external load including an alternating current device. By adjustments to the current source, the capacitance in parallel with the discharge tube, and connections to auxiliary electrodes, the pulse repetition frequency of the discharge may be adjusted.

The problems associated with the operation of vacuum arc devices are typically associated with the establishment of a continuous channel of low resistance ionized plasma between the electrodes of a device operating in this mode, typically accompanied by intense heating of the electrodes. Such a channel is difficult to interrupt in rapid and predictable manner once established. The pulsed abnormal glow discharge regime is characterized by no such continuous channel having been established, and predominantly cold-cathode auto-electronic emission rather than thermionic emission, these characteristics provide the ability to extinguish the discharge readily. 

By suitable design of a low pressure gas discharge tube, we can sufficiently inhibit transition from the abnormal glow discharge regime into the vacuum arc discharge regime that we can successfully exploit characteristics of the abnormal glow discharge regime to provide a device having valuable and controllable characteristics as a high power, pulse generator when fed from a current source. Such a pulse generator has useful applications in applications requiring high current pulses. It is a valuable characteristic that the pulse repetition frequency can be varied over a range, the extent of which itself varies according to the physical characteristics of the tube and the environment in which it is operated. According to circumstances, the frequency may range as low as 10 pulses per second or range as high as 104 pulses, these figures being exemplary only and not limitative.

Any vacuum discharge tube capable of sustaining a stable pulsed abnormal glow discharge (PAGD).

A pulse generator arm containing the vacuum discharge

Cold cathode vacuum tube pulse generator

Vacuum device capable of being operated in an endogenous pulsed abnormal glow discharge regime under cold cathode conditions. 

Spontaneous emission self-pulsing device

Parameters that affect pulse frequency
1) Parallel capacitance
2) Applied direct current

Rather than placing a load directly in the circuit containing the discharge tube, it may be connected indirectly through a transformer.